244 HISTORY OF PERSIA the Tarikh-i~Rashidi,1 the writer of which, it must be re- memtiefed, was Baber's cousin. He describes the battle of Ghajdavan as follows : vl!Tne Uzbeg infantry began to pour forth their arrows from every corner, so that very soon the claws of Islam twisted the hands of heresy and unbelief, and victory declared for the true faith. The victorious breezes of Islam overturned the banners of the schismatics. (The Turkoman) were so completely routed, that most of them perished on the field ; all the rents that had been made by the swords at Karshi were now sewn up with the arrow stitches of vengeance. They sent Mir Najm and all the Turkoman Amirs to hell. The Emperor retired, broken and crestfallen, to Hissar. It is. to be noted that in this account Shah Ismail's troops are referred to as Turkoman. The Mir Najm was the Persian commander, whose full title was Najm-i-Sani, or "the Second Star." The result of this disaster was to restore Transoxiana to the Uzbegs, who for many generations thereafter were a serious menace to the eastern province of Persia. So indelibly have they im- pressed themselves on the memory of the inhabitants of Khorasan that the great meadow near Chinaran is still known as Ulang-i-ShaU^ or "The Royal Meadow/' probably after Shaybani Khan, who was also known as Shahi Beg. The Uzbeg monarch generally spent the summer in this locality for the sake of the grazing, and he built Geok Bagh, or "The Blue Garden," in which I camped some six years ago.2 The Campaign of Selim the Grimy A.H. 920 (1514),— Selim the Grim was one of the great conquerors of the house of Othman,3 a cruel monarch revelling in blood- shed, but nevertheless a writer of Persian odes and a- liberal patron to men of learning. The hatred felt for the Shia Persians in Transoxiana appears dearly enough from the failure of Baber to win success as an ally of the schismatics ; and it is not difficult to understand why Selim I. and his advisers, who were equally fanatical, determined to crtish the upstart power and the heresy 1 P. 261. 2 Journal R.G.S. for January 1911. 8 The account of the relations between. Persia and Turkey is mainly based on the monumental work by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall.